Volume 26, Issue 4 (1-2019)                   www.ijcm.ir 2019, 26(4): 945-960 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Mosadegh M, Fardoost F, Soltani A. Mineralogy, geochemistry and genesis of the Halalan Mn deposit, south of Damghan. www.ijcm.ir. 2019; 26 (4) :945-960
URL: http://ijcm.ir/article-1-1202-en.html
Shahrood University of Technology
Abstract:   (441 Views)
Halalan Manganese ore deposit is located in Torud-Chah Shirin volcano-sedimentary band and the northern part of Central Iran structural-sedimentary zone. The outcropped rocks in the area include metamorphic complex with lithology composition of slate, phyllite, schist, marble, limestone, dolomite and slightly metamorphed sandstone with Early Jurassic age. Manganese mineralization has occurred in the form of stratiform (Layered and lens-shaped) and parallel to stratification. The main minerals forming the ore deposit are mainly pyrolusite, psilomelane, heulandite, braunite and hematite. The massive, layered, lentiform and bandy structures and the disseminated, the empty space filling and replacement textures are the most important structure and texture of the ore deposit. The existent alterations in the region include chloritic, epidote, argillic, silication and carbonatization alterations. Based on the geochemical studies, The high ratios of Mn / Fe and low concentrations of trace metals, especially Co, Ni, Cu, and high amounts of Mn, SiO2 and Fe are as evidences of Mn enrichment and depletion from submarine hydrothermal fluids (exhalative) in this deposit. Therefore, all the evidences indicate that the Halalan manganese ore deposit has formed under two mechanisms: the enrichment in seawater by exhalative-hydrothermal fluids and this deposition in sedimentary conditions influenced by changes in Eh and pH in marine environment and it is a volcano-sedimentary ore deposit. Based on the studies, the Halalan manganese ore deposit is most similar to the manganese ore deposits of Cuba type, with the exception that the Halalan manganese ore deposit has been affected by a metamorphic phase in the green schist facies.
Full-Text [PDF 120 kb]   (143 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2018/12/29 | Accepted: 2018/12/29 | Published: 2018/12/29

1. [1] Kuleshov V. N., "Manganese deposits: Communication 1. Genetic models of manganese ore formation", Lithology and Mineral Resources, 46(5) (2011) 473-493. [DOI:10.1134/S0024490211050038]
2. [2] Johnson J. E., Webb S. M., Ma Chi, Fischer W. W., "Manganese mineralogy and diagenesis in the sedimentary rock record", Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 173 (2016) 210-231. [DOI:10.1016/j.gca.2015.10.027]
3. [3] Siddiquie F. N., Alam J., Shaif M., "Occurrence of Manganese Ore Deposits and Their Mineralogy in Vizianagaram-Visakhapatnam Manganese Ores Belt (Andhra Pradesh) India", International Journal of Geosciences 6(6) (2015) 549. [DOI:10.4236/ijg.2015.66043]
4. [4] Maynard J. B., "The chemistry of manganese ores through time: a signal of increasing diversity of earth-surface environments", Economic Geology 105(3) (2010) 535-552. [DOI:10.2113/gsecongeo.105.3.535]
5. [5] Conly A. G., Scott S. D., Bellon H., "Metalliferous Manganese Oxide Mineralization Associated with the Boléo Cu-Co-Zn District", Mexico. Economic Geology 106(7) (2011) 1173-1196. [DOI:10.2113/econgeo.106.7.1173]
6. [6] Hein J. R., "Cobalt-rich ferromanganese crusts: global distribution, composition, origin and research activities", International Seabed Authority, Technical Study 2 (2002) 36-89.
7. [7] Arvin M., Robinson P.T., "The petrogenesis and tectonic setting of lavas from the Baft ophiolitic mélange, southwest of Kerman, Iran", Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 31(5) (1994). 824-834. [DOI:10.1139/e94-076]
8. [8] Kahrazehi M., Lotfi M., Ghaderi M., Mohajjel M., Jafari M., "First Report of Geochemical Characteristics of the Sangan Manganese Occurrence, Northeast Khash (Iran)", Indian Journal of Science and Technology 8(S3) (2015)85-93. [DOI:10.17485/ijst/2015/v8i1/59884]
9. [9] Fardoost F., "Geology and Genesis of Manganese Varnarch Qom Deposit", Master thesis, Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Moallem University (1991).
10. [10] Jafarian M., "Geological map of 1: 100000 Kalateh Rasham", Geological Survey of Iran (2001).
11. [11] Webb T.C., "Manganese", New Brunswick Department of Natural Resources; Minerals, Policy and Planning Division (2008).
12. [12] Papavassiliou K., Voudouris P., Kanellopoulos C., Glasby G., Alfieris D., Mitsis I., "New geochemical and mineralogical constraints on the genesis of the Vani hydrothermal manganese deposit at NW Milos island, Greece: Comparison with the Aspro Gialoudi deposit and implications for the formation of the Milos manganese mineralization", Ore Geology Reviews 80 (2017) 594-611. [DOI:10.1016/j.oregeorev.2016.07.023]
13. [13] Rajabzadeh M. A., Haddad F., Polgári M., Fintor K., Walter H., Molnár Z., Gyollai I., "Investigation on the role of microorganisms in manganese mineralization from Abadeh-Tashk area, Fars Province, southwestern Iran by using petrographic and geochemical data", Ore Geology Reviews 80 (2017) 229-249. [DOI:10.1016/j.oregeorev.2016.06.035]
14. [14] Siddiquie F. N., Raza M., "Major and Trace Elements Variability in Manganese Ores f Srikakulam District (AP)", Indian Geologist's Association, Chandigarh, 23 (1990) 99-109.
15. [15] Siddiquie F. N., Alam J., Shaif M., "Occurrence of Manganese Ore Deposits and Their Mineralogy in Vizianagaram-Visakhapatnam Manganese Ores Belt (Andhra Pradesh) India", International Journal of Geosciences 6(06) (2015) 549. [DOI:10.4236/ijg.2015.66043]
16. [16] Salem I. A., Ibrahim M. E., El Monsef M. A., "Mineralogy, geochemistry, and origin of hydrothermal manganese veins at Wadi Maliek, Southern Eastern Desert, Egypt", Arabian journal of geosciences 5(3) (2012) 385-406. [DOI:10.1007/s12517-010-0195-1]
17. [17] Fermor L.L., "Manganese Ore Deposits of India", Memoir of Geological Survey of India 37 (1909) 272.
18. [18] Maslennikov V. V., Ayupova N. R., Herrington R. J., Danyushevskiy L. V., Large R. R, "Ferruginous and manganiferous haloes around massive sulphide deposits of the Urals", Ore geology reviews, 47 (2012) 5-41. [DOI:10.1016/j.oregeorev.2012.03.008]
19. [19] Agang N. A., Karami M., Nouri KhanKahdani K., "Determination of the Origin of Manganese Mountain Coal Using Mineralogical and Histological Studies", Fourth Conference of the Iranian Economic Geological Society (2012).
20. [20] Zarasvandi A., Lentz D., Rezaei M., Pourkaseb H., "Genesis of the Nasirabad manganese occurrence, Fars province, Iran: Geochemical evidences", Chemie der Erde-Geochemistry 73(4) (2013) 495-508. [DOI:10.1016/j.chemer.2013.02.003]
21. [21] Sugisaki R., "Relation between chemical composition and sedimentation rate of Pacific ocean-floor sediments deposited since the middle Cretaceous: basic evidence for chemical constraints on depositional environments of ancient sediments", The Journal of Geology (1984) 235-259. [DOI:10.1086/628858]
22. [22] Hein J. R., Schulz M. S., Dunham R. E., Stern R. J., Bloomer S. H., "Diffuse flow hydrothermal manganese mineralization along the active Mariana and southern Izu-Bonin arc system, western Pacific", Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 113(B8) (2008). [DOI:10.1029/2007JB005432]
23. [23] Yamaoka K., Ma L., Hishikawa K., Usui A., "Geochemistry and U-series dating of Holocene and fossil marine hydrothermal manganese deposits from the Izu-Ogasawara arc", Ore Geology Reviews (2016).
24. [24] Fitzgerald C. E., Gillis K. M., "Hydrothermal manganese oxide deposits from Baby Bare seamount in the Northeast Pacific Ocean", Marine Geology 225(1) (2006) 145-156. [DOI:10.1016/j.margeo.2005.09.005]
25. [25] Thompson R. N., "Magmatism of the British Tertiary volcanic province", Scottish Journal of Geology 18(1) (1982) 49-107. [DOI:10.1144/sjg18010049]
26. [26] Bau M., Schmidt K., Koschinsky A., Hein J., Kuhn T., Usui A., "Discriminating between different genetic types of marine ferro-manganese crusts and nodules based on rare earth elements and yttrium", Chemical Geology 381 (2014) 1-9 [DOI:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2014.05.004]
27. [27] Naden J., Kilias S. P., Darbyshire D. F., "Active geothermal systems with entrained seawater as modern analogs for transitional volcanic-hosted massive sulfide and continental magmato-hydrothermal mineralization", The example of Milos Island, Greece. Geology 33(7) (2005) 541-544. [DOI:10.1130/G21307.1]
28. [28] Due-as-Bohórquez A., da Rocha R. E., Kuroyanagi A., Bijma J., Reichart G. J., "Effect of salinity and seawater calcite saturation state on Mg and Sr incorporation in cultured planktonic foraminifera", Marine Micropaleontology, 73(3) (2009) 178-189.
29. [29] Konhauser K., "Fundamentals of Geomicrobiology", Wiley-Blackwell Science Ltd (2012) 50–210.
30. [30] Nicholson. K., Hein J. R., Bühn B., Dasgupta S., (editors). "Manganese Mineralization", Geochemistry and mineralogy of terrestrial and marine Deposits (1997 (532.
31. [31] Toth J. R., "Deposition of submarine crusts rich in manganese and iron", Geological Society of America Bulletin 91(1) (1980) 44-54. https://doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1980)91<44:DOSCRI>2.0.CO;2 [DOI:10.1130/0016-7606(1980)912.0.CO;2]
32. [32] Bonatti E., Zerbi M., Kay R., Rydell H., "Metalliferous Deposits from the Apennine Ophiolites: Mesozoic Equiva-lents of Modern Deposits from Oceanic Spreading Centers, Bull", Geol. Soc. Am. vol 87 (1976): 83–94. https://doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1976)87<83:MDFTAO>2.0.CO;2 [DOI:10.1130/0016-7606(1976)872.0.CO;2]
33. [33] Oksuz N., "Geochemical characteristics of the Eymir (Sorgun-Yozgat) manganese deposit, Turkey", Journal of Rare Earths 29(3) (2011) 287-296. [DOI:10.1016/S1002-0721(10)60446-2]
34. [34] Porter S., Vanko D. A., Ghazi A. M., "Major and trace element compositions of secondary clays in basalts altered at low temperature, eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge", In Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program. Scientific Results 168 (2000). 149-157). [DOI:10.2973/odp.proc.sr.168.004.2000]
35. [35] Choi J. H., Hariya Y., "Geochemistry and depositional environment of Mn oxide deposits in the Tokoro Belt, northeastern Hokkaido, Japan", Economic Geology 87(5) (1992) 1265-1274. [DOI:10.2113/gsecongeo.87.5.1265]
36. [36] Del Rio-Salas R., Ochoa-Landín L., Eastoe C. J., Ruiz J., Meza-Figueroa D., Valencia-Moreno M., Mendívil-Quijada H., "Genesis of manganese oxide mineralization in the Boleo region and Concepción Peninsula, Baja California Sur: constraints from Pb-Sr isotopes and REE geochemistry", Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geológicas 30(3) (2013) 482-499
37. [37] Liakopoulos A., Glasby G. P., Papavassiliou C. T., Boulegue J., "Nature and origin of the Vani manganese deposit, Milos, Greece: an overview", Ore Geology Reviews 18(3) (2001) 181-209. [DOI:10.1016/S0169-1368(01)00029-4]
38. [38] Roy S., "Environments and processes of manganese deposition", Economic Geology, 87(5) (1992)1218-1236. [DOI:10.2113/gsecongeo.87.5.1218]
39. [39] Mosier Dan L., Norman J., "Descriptive and Grade-tonnage Models of Volcanogenic Manganese Deposits in Oceanic Environments: A Modification. US Government Printing Office", (1988).
40. [40] Mosadegh M., "Mineralogy, geochemistry and formation pattern of Manganese Hellanan ore deposit, Teachers area, south of Damghan", Master thesis, Faculty of Geosciences, Shahroud University (1394).

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

© 2019 All Rights Reserved | Iranian Journal of Crystallography and Mineralogy

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb